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Down's syndrome varies in severity among its sufferers, causing intellectual disability and delayed lifelong development. They are the most famous genetic chromosomal disorder and cause learning disabilities in children. They also frequently cause other medical anomalies, including heart and digestive disorders.

Understanding Down's syndrome well and early interventions can greatly improve the quality of life of children and adults with the disorder and help them live a life full of achievements.


Everyone with Down's syndrome is an individual with mild, moderate or severe mental and developmental problems. Some may be correct while others have major health problems as serious heart abnormalities.

Children and adults with Down's syndrome have distinctive facial features. Although not all people with Down's syndrome have the same facial features, the highlights include:


  1. Flat Face
  2. Little Head
  3. Short neck
  4. Prominent tongue
  5. Eyelids tilted upwards (incisions of eyelids)
  6. Strangely or small ears
  7. Weak muscle tension
  8. Two short petitions with one curl in the palm
  9. Relatively short fingers, hands and two small men
  10. Excessive flexibility
  11. Small white points on the colored part of the eye called Brochfeld patches
  12. Short Length

Children with Down's syndrome may have a normal body but grow slower and remain shorter than other children of the same age.

Intellectual disabilities

Most children with Down's syndrome have moderate to moderate cognitive impairment. Language delays, affected both short and long-term memory.

When to visit a doctor

Children with Down's syndrome are usually diagnosed before or during childbirth. However, if you have any questions about pregnancy or your child's development, talk with your doctor.


Human cells usually contain 23 pairs of chromosomes. One chromosome comes in each pair of father and the other from the mother.

Down's syndrome is produced when an abnormal cell division related to chromosome 21 occurs. The division of abnormal cells results in an additional total or partial version of chromosome 21. Additional genetic material is responsible for characteristic features and developmental problems related to Down's syndrome. One of the following three genetic variations can cause Down's syndrome:

  1. Triangle pigment 21. In 95% of cases, Down's syndrome is caused by trisomy 21 where the child has three copies of chromosome 21 in all cells instead of two copies as usual. This is caused by abnormal cell division during the growth of a sperm cell or egg cell.
  2. Down's mosaic syndrome. In this rare form of Down's syndrome, a person has only some cells containing additional copies of chromosome 21. This mosaic combination of natural and abnormal cells is caused by abnormal cell division after enrichment.
  3. Down's syndrome with pigmentation. Down's syndrome can occur when part of chromosome 21 becomes connected (repositioned) to another chromosome, before or during pregnancy. These children have the usual two versions of chromosome 21, but they also have additional genetic material of chromosome 21 associated with another chromosome.

There are no known behavioral or environmental factors that cause Down's syndrome.

Is the disease hereditary?

  1. Often, Down's syndrome is not inherited. It may result from an error in cell division during the early stages of the embryo's development.
  2. Down's syndrome may be transmitted by chromatography from parents to children. However, about 3 to 4 percent of children with Down's syndrome suffer from chromosomal change and have been inherited from a parent.
  3. When children inherit a balanced chromosomal alteration disease, the mother or father has some rearranged genetic material from Decree No. 21 as another, which is considered not additional genetic material. This means that the balanced carrier does not experience any signs or symptoms of Down's syndrome, but the father or mother can transmit the unbalanced chromosomal change to the children resulting in the development of Down's syndrome.

People with Down's syndrome may experience a combination of complications, some of which become prominent as they age. These complications may include:

-Heart defects. About half of children with Down's syndrome are born with one or another type of congenital heart disease. These heart problems can be life-threatening, and may require surgery in early childhood.
-Digestive defects (GI). Gastrointestinal abnormalities occur in some children with Down's syndrome, and may include bowel, esophageal, tracheal and anal abnormalities. The risk of developing digestive problems, such as gastrointestinal blockages, heartburn (gastroesophageal reflux) or abdominal disease, may increase.
-Immune disorders. Due to abnormalities in immune systems, people with Down's syndrome are at risk of autoimmune disorders, some cancers, and infectious diseases, such as pneumonia.
-Sleep apnea. Due to changes in soft tissue and structure that disrupt the airway, children and adults with Down's syndrome are at risk of obstructive sleep apnea.
-Obesity. People with Down's syndrome tend to be more obese than the general population.
-Spinal cord issues. Some people with Down's syndrome may experience inconsistencies in the upper paragraphs of the neck (axial metastasis). This condition makes them at risk of spinal cord injury due to hyperextension of the neck.
-Leukemia. Children with Down's syndrome are at higher risk of developing leukemia.
-dementia. People with Down's syndrome are at higher risk of dementia - its signs and symptoms may begin at about 50 years old.
-Down's syndrome also increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease.
-Other problems. Down's syndrome can also be associated with other health conditions, including endocrine problems, dental problems, seizures, ear infections and hearing and vision problems.
Routine medical care and tissue treatment when needed can help maintain a healthy lifestyle for people with Down's syndrome. Life expectancy People with Down's syndrome have grown significantly. A person with Down's syndrome can currently expect to live for more than sixty (60) years, depending on the severity of health problems. Prevention There's no way to prevent Down's syndrome. If you are at risk of having a child with Down's syndrome or already have one, you may need to consult a genetic consultant prior to pregnancy. A genetic disease consultant will help you understand the prospects of having a baby with Down's syndrome. The doctor can also explain available prenatal examinations and help explain the advantages and disadvantages of these examinations.


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